Ninth Circuit Issues Decision on Tribal Court Jurisdiction over Non-Members
A case summary of Smith v. Salish Kootenai College, published in The ARROW, the newsletter of the Indian Law Section of the State Bar of Arizona
In an en banc
decision issued January 10, 2006, the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals held
that "a nonmember [plaintiff] who knowingly enters tribal court for the purpose
of filing suit against a tribal member, has by the act of filing his claims,
entered into a 'consensual relationship' with the tribe within the meaning" of
Montana v. United States, 450 U.S. 544 (1981). Smith v. Salish
Kootenai College, No. 03-35306, slip op. at 126-127 (9th Cir. January 10,
(In the Ninth Circuit, an
en banc panel consists of eleven judges, instead of a three-judge panel.
En banc comes from French and means "on the bench.")
The Court clarified that
a tribal court has jurisdiction under Montana to adjudicate a tort dispute
brought by a nonmember against a tribal entity or tribal member when the cause
of action bears some direct connection to tribal lands.
The parties include
Smith, a member of the Umatilla Tribe of Oregon, and a tribal college - Salish
Kootenai College (SKC) - owned and operated by the Confederated Salish and
Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation in Montana. Smith was enrolled as a
student at SKC, which is located on the Flathead Reservation. As part of his
coursework, Smith was driving a dump truck owned by SKC on a federal highway
within the exterior boundaries of the reservation. Two members of the Salish
and Kootenai Tribes, also students in the course, were passengers in the dump
Due to an alleged mechanical failure, a rollover accident occurred killing one
tribal member and seriously injuring the other.
The injured passenger and
the estate of the deceased passenger brought claims against SKC and Smith in
tribal court. In one action Smith filed a cross-claim against SKC, and in the
other action SKC filed a cross-claim against Smith. All actions were settled
before trial except for Smith's cross-claim against SKC. Smith proceeded with
his action in tribal court, and the tribal court realigned Smith as the
plaintiff and SKC as the defendant. A jury returned a verdict in favor of SKC.
Smith was dissatisfied with the result and sought relief claiming that the
tribal court lacked jurisdiction.
To evaluate whether a
tribe has civil jurisdiction, a court will look at the party status of the
nonmember and whether the events giving rise to the cause of action bear "some
direct connection to tribal lands." Slip op. at 112, 118. Smith brought
negligence and strict liability claims against SKC for failure to maintain the
dump truck and spoliation of evidence, notes taken by a SKC employee. Even
though the rollover accident occurred on a federal highway, the Court found that
the cause of action for the claims brought by Smith arose out of activities
conducted on or controlled by a tribal entity on tribal lands. The Court found
that maintaining the vehicle implicated SKC's actions on the college campus, not
on the federal highway. Since SKC had control over the notes taken by a SKC
employee, this claim also arose out of activities occurring on the reservation.
Since this case involved
a nonmember bringing an action against a tribal entity, the Court evaluated
whether the tribal court had sufficient interest in exercising subject matter
jurisdiction under the framework set forth in Montana. Tribes have
inherent power to protect tribal self-government and to control internal
relations, including the adjudication of disputes among tribal members.
Montana, 450 U.S. at 564. The Montana court set forth two
exceptions to the general lack of civil jurisdiction over nonmembers. The first
exception provides that "[a] tribe may regulate through taxation, licensing, or
other means, the activities of nonmembers who enter consensual relationships
with the tribe or its members, through commercial dealing, contracts, leases, or
other arrangements." Id.at 565. The Court noted that this list is
illustrative rather than exclusive, and held that Smith consented to tribal
jurisdiction by choosing to bring a case in tribal court against a tribal
entity. Slip op. at 121, n.4.
The Court relied on Williams v. Lee, 358 U.S. 217, 222-223 (1959) and Nevada v. Hicks,
533 U.S. 353 (2001) to determine that "civil tribal jurisdiction [cannot] turn
on finely-wrought distinctions between contract and tort." Slip op. at 121. The
Court found that the "consensual relationship" test under Montana
resembles the due process clause analysis for personal jurisdiction. The Court
engaged in this analogy in an attempt to demonstrate that a jurisdictional
analysis balancing state and tribal interests is more flexible than the strict
standards provided to the federal courts in determining subject matter
jurisdiction as evidenced by the Supreme Court's determination that "consensual
relationships" can create tribal court jurisdiction. Slip op. 123-124. Smith
willingly filed suit in tribal court against SKC. Because he freely consented
to tribal court jurisdiction by filing his claim, Smith cannot subsequently
claim that he did not consent to tribal court jurisdiction.
The second Montana
exception provides that a tribe retains inherent sovereignty over "conduct that
threatens or has some direct effect on the political integrity, the economic
security, or the health or welfare of the tribe." Montana, 450 U.S. at
566. Because the Court found that the first exception applies, it did not
determine whether the second exception also applies but suggested the strong
possibility of the second exception's application. The Court stated that
denying tribal jurisdiction "would have a direct effect on the welfare and
economic security of the tribe insofar as it would seriously limit the tribe's
ability to regulate the conduct of its own members through tort law." Slip op.
In upholding tribal court
jurisdiction, the Ninth Circuit has clarified that when a nonmember chooses to
bring an action in tribal court against a tribal defendant, he cannot later
successfully claim that the tribal court lacked jurisdiction.
The decision also
clarifies that the first Montana exception is not limited to commercial
dealings and recognizes the importance of tribal court adjudication of tort
actions as a basic measure of self-government.
 For analysis purposes,
members of the Salish and Kootenai Tribes are considered "tribal
members" while Smith is considered a "nonmember" because he is not an
enrolled member of the Salish and Kootenai Tribes.
 Tribal courts also
possess any additional authority delegated by Congress; no such
authority is implicated in this case.
 Although SKC argued
that the consensual relationship resulted from Smith's enrollment at SKC,
the Court found that "any contractual relationship Smith had with SKC as
a result of his student status is too remote from his cause of action to
serve as the basis for the Tribes' civil jurisdiction." Slip op. at
 Because SKC's articles
of incorporation provide only a limited waiver of sovereign immunity in
tribal court, eliminating tribal court jurisdiction would leave Smith
without a forum in which to bring legal action.